Forensic evidence is evidence obtained by scientific methods such as ballistics, blood test, and DNA test and used in court. Forensic evidence often helps to establish the guilt or innocence of possible suspects. Analysis of forensic evidence is used in the investigation and prosecution of civil as well as criminal proceedings. Forensic evidence can be used to link crimes that are thought to be related to one another. For example, DNA evidence can link one offender to several different crimes or crime scenes. This linking of crimes helps the police authorities to narrow the range of possible suspects and to establish patterns of for crimes to identify and prosecute suspects.

Forensic Crime Scene Reconstruction

Forensic crime scene reconstruction refers to the process of determining the sequence of events about what occurred during and after a crime. Forensic reconstructions can be considered both a scientific fact gathering as well as a logical evaluation process.

Requirements for crime scene reconstruction are:

a. physical evidence;

b. photographs from scene and autopsy;

c. forensic evidence including blood spatter evidence and fibers;

d. ballistic, trajectory and shooting reconstruction;

e. notes, measurements, and sketches;

f. footprints, tire prints and other impression evidence;

g. eyewitness reports or interviews;

h. accident reconstruction; and

i. sexual assault reconstruction.

Forensic Examiner

A forensic examiner refers to a professional who conducts forensic examinations in any of the forensic science fields. S/he performs an orderly analysis, investigation, inquiry, test, inspection, or examination in an attempt to obtain the truth and form an expert opinion. Every scientific and technical field has a forensic application and every forensic examination provides an expert opinion

Acoustical Evidence

The term acoustical means pertaining to hearing. Acoustical evidence refers to legal evidence which can be heard rather than seen. For instance, an audiotape recording.

Admissible Evidence

Admissible evidence is that evidence which may be received by the judge or jury in a case in order to decide the merits of a controversy. Rules of evidence, which vary by jurisdiction, determine the admissibility of evidence. It is the judge's duty to apply the rules of evidence in the case at hand to determine its admissibility, however, the judge need not introduce all admissible evidence.

For example, evidence which is cumulative (duplicative) of previously introduced evidence may be excluded in the interest of judicial economy. Judges may also exclude evidence when its probative value (tendency to prove the truth or falsity of an issue in controversy) is outweighed by considerations of its prejudicial effect on the passions of the jury, tendency to mislead or confuse the jury, or unwarranted consumption of court time.

Advice of Evidence

Advice on evidence refers to the written opinion of a counsel identifying the issues raised in a civil or criminal case and advising counsel's instructing solicitor in relation to the evidence to be called at trial. In order to give advice properly, evidence should be collected at the earliest possible stage. For instance, witness statements, documentary material, plans, objects, photographs and any other items of real evidence.

After-Discovery Evidence

Evidence found by a losing party in a civil or criminal case after a motion has been ruled upon or trial has been completed is referred as after-discovered evidence. In short it means the evidence discovered after arriving at a legal decision. Such evidences will be considered on a motion for new trial if it is proved to the satisfaction of the court that such evidence could not have been discovered on trial even after honest attempt. This is also termed as newly discovered evidence.

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